Technological and scientific advancement has been driven by mankind's ability to craft the world around us into functional technologies. In this talk, we will explore a modern method that continues this tradition, allowing the creation artificial crystalline structures of complex oxides with unprecedented properties that promise next generation functionalities. Pulsed laser deposition allows stacking of single atomic layers of disparate materials with sharp interfaces where novel properties, not present in either constituent materials, arise. To directly probe these nanoscale interfaces, advanced synchrotron X-ray characterization will be introduced as a powerful tool for investigating the strongly entangled lattice, orbital, charge, and magnetic degrees of freedom exhibited by these artificial structures. Some of the fascinating physical phenomena derived from these strongly correlated systems, such as unconventional superconductivity and 2D magnetism, will be showcased. We will conclude this talk with a discussion of the promising future applications for this class of materials, with an emphasis on topological phenomena.